Primary Divine Objective [Reason] for Revelation of the Qur’aan

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The    Primary   Divine   Objective  [Reason]   for

  the  Revelation  of  the  Quraan

by  Shahiid  Aa’ya’tul’laah  Baa’qir  Sadr  and  

Shahiid Aa’ya’tul’laah  Mu’ham’mad  Baa’qir  al’Ha’kiim

 Translator:  Maulana  munir  hassan  (Maulawi,  Aalim,  Faazil)

 Khaliifah  Rashiid  of  Maulana  Saalih  Salaahuddiin

 © copyright on translation 27 August 1999

That  we  serve  JUSTICE  (ADL)  fully  and faithfully

That  we  Never  leave  TRUTH  (HAQQ) destitute

Motto on Maulana Saalih Salaahuddiin’s emblem

 

! Nb. This lecture by Hazrat Shaahid  was is a delivered in most difficult circumstances, he was harassed, repeatedly imprisoned, tortured, by the saddam regime, proxy of xxx. He spoke always surrounded by INFORMANTS of xxx. Hazrat Shaahid his sister and her daughter were executed by saddam husayn. With utmost humility i, munir hassan, entreat that as you read this translation  i,  Maulana  munir  hassan,  beg   please  listen  to his words.  

|| Page 45 ||  The  Primary  Divine  Objective [Reason]  for  the  Revelation  of the  Qur’aan  by  Sha’hiid  Aa’ya’tul’laah  Baa’qir  Sadr  and  Aa’ya’tul’laah Mu’ham’mad  Baa’qir  al’Ha’kiim

[translation of Chapter 4 of Uluumul Quraan by Sha’hiid Aa’ya’tul’laah Baa’qir Sadr and Sha’hiid Aa’ya’tul’laah Mu’ham’mad Baa’qir al’Ha’kiim, 3rd edition, publishers Maj’ma’ul fik’ril is’laa’mi]

Important: Any reader is free to compare with the original to judge if i have been faithful to the martyred Aayatullaah’s work or not.   

Importance of this Topic

Before we discuss the actual topic “The Primary Divine Objective [Reason] for the revelation of the Qur’aan” it is necessary that we deal with the importance of exploring this topic.

That is: Why are we talking about this topic?

We may refer briefly to the following points:

1. one’s understanding of the quraan is affected by a number of factors:

1.1 whether one looks at the quraan from an Islamic standpoint, that is from the point of view a Muslim      

1.2 whether one looks at the quraan as a Divine [Allaah’s] revelation or solely the product of a human being

1.3 whether one knows the circumstances in which the quraan was revealed: text ßà context, milieu  

Your understanding of the quraan will depend on whether you know the Primary Divine Objective [Reason] for the Revelation of the Quraan.    

Your understanding of the Qur’aan is contingent upon your  Knowledge of the Primary Divine Objective. 

The Primary Divine Objective [Reason] for the Revelation of the Quraan has an impact the quraan’s meaning, its message.

The Primary Divine Objective is the Reason why Allaah Revealed the quraan – did He Reveal it as an entertaining story book, did He reveal it as a book full of magic tricks, did He Reveal it as a song book, did He Reveal it as book for only a few people

The Primary Divine Objective [Reason] for the Revelation of the Quraan runs through the entire quraan. It, the Primary Divine Objective [Reason] for the Revelation of the Quraan, affects the way you understand and interpret the quraan.     

|| Page 46 ||   2. Knowledge of the Primary Divine Objective [Reason] for the Revelation of the Quraan will play a crucial role in 

explaining (tafsiir) the quraan,

interpreting the quraan,

making sense of a number of terms, concepts, ideas, ideational movements,  and the quraan’s characteristics,

implementing the qur’aan, especially in a time after the demise of Nabi Muhammad

Terms:

Concepts:

Idea:

Ideational movement:

Characteristics of the Qur’aan:  

————————————–

3. The Muslim community has looked upon the quraan with a sense of holiness and has devoted a great amount of time to its study. [The world of qur’aan scholarship.]  

Muslims have endeavored to keep alive this relationship with the quraan at various levels with varying degrees of quality during their history.

For example, this concern and interaction can solely be on the level of memorizing with understanding the text of the qur’aan,

or this concern and interaction can solely be on the level of understanding the contents of the qur’aan,

or this concern and interaction can solely be on the level of using the quraan as a distinguishing but ornamental feature of Muslim life – the quraan is read every morning and evening on radio and television broadcasts, on special occasions(weddings, birthdays, maulids, karbala commemorations, jalsas)

The desired level of concern and interaction should be on the level of making a reality the true motive for Divinity’s having revealed the quraan. The qur’aan itself wants of us to bring to reality the reason why it was revealed.                             

[Important: the qur’aan is personified as a sentient, intelligent being in ha’diith]. This concern and interaction – bringing the qur’aan to reality – is one that will be authentic (correct) and fundamentally truthful to the qur’aan itself. 

|| page 48 || [ now (coming to the point) ]  It is probably best to search the qur’aan itself to identify the Primary Divine Objective [Reason] for the Revelation of the Qur’aan. This we may do by studying those verses| declarations of the qur’aan which explain and announce the revelation of the qur’aan.

When we make a comprehensive study of the qur’aan we find a large number of verses [statements| declarations] can shed light on the Reason behind the revelation of the qur’aan. However these statements and declarations of the qur’aan appear as if they are announcing different and separate reasons for the revelation of the qur’aan. We will point to examples of these declarations and the different possible interpretations to these verses, we will thereafter deduce – through a comparison of these verses – the Primary [Divine] Objective for the revelation of the quraan.

1. In several verses the qur’aan gives information with regard to identifying the Reason for the revelation of the qur’aan. These verses demonstrate that the qur’aan was revealed for the purpose of Warning and Reminding:

1.1

2. In other verses we are told that the qur’aan was revealed to present metaphors, similes, parables, proverbs (am’thaal), warnings (i’bar), lessons (du’ruus):

2.1

2.2

3. At other places in the qur’aan it appears as if the Reason for the Revelation of the qur’aan is to establish proofs and arguments and miracles (extraordinary)??? 

3.1

3.2

4. From some passages it appears that the qur’aan is a legal document and an explanation of legal rules:

4.1

4.2

5. Other passages of the qur’aan show that it is revealed for the purpose of final judgment over all matters, to solve disputes and to distinguish between truth and falsehood.

5.1

6. We also find from other statements and declarations of the qur’aan that the for the revelation of the qur’aan is to confirm the truthfulness of the previous cycles of prophecy, to continue those cycles, to correct their application where necessary and then to direct them from a position of authority. The qur’aan has a role that is corrective and one that perfects (completes) the previous cycles:

6.1

These Aims which we have mentioned (nos. 1 to 6) appear to be varied, however after careful study of the qur’aan as a whole we find that these aims fall under the Primary Divine Objective [the Reason] for the Revelation of the Quraan and they actually serve this Primary Divine Objective [Reason] for the Revelation of the Qur’aan.   

|| page 49 ||  After a comprehensive study of the qur’aan we note that the quraan seeks through its revelation the realization of one major aim (which has three dimensions 1 à 1.1, 1.2, 1.3). The other supportive aims (nos. 1 to 6) are complementary and serve to bring to reality this Great Aim.

The quraan itself points to the supportive role that these aims have in relation to the Primary Divine Objective, as we progress we will explore the supportive role that these aims (nos. 1 to 6) in relation to the Primary Divine Objective. 

This Primary Divine Objective is To Bring About a Fundamental, Radical, Organic, Social Change for the good of humanity at large. The quraan seeks to bring about this Primary Divine Objective by

v   explaining a methodology, a manner, a way, a modus operandi for achieving this Fundamental, Radical, Organic, Social Change for the good of humanity at large 

v   creating a revolutionary basis, a will to change which is a distinctive characteristic of this abovementioned methodology.

The Three Dimensions of the Primary Divine Objective for the Revelation of the qur’aan

* Grassroots change (fundamental social readjustment, reconstruction)

This dimension is spoken about in contemporary language as “revolution”, || 50 || the quraan expresses this dimension as the task of taking people out of layers of darkness towards light:

1.1 “he takes them out of darkness* into light ” [*darkness – negative ways of life – smoking, drinking, stealing, rape, prostitution, living under oppression, blocked thinking]

This declaration is governed by the fundamental qur’aanic principle

1.1.1 “verily Allaah does not change the condition of a people until they change their own condition [intra level within the individual and inter-relationally between people].” Important:  this is a fundamental quraanic law, learn it, ponder deeply over it, discuss ways to apply it and implement it, then think about your success at application this is called Praxis.

1.1.2  ” that is because Allaah has never changed for the worse the blessing that He has granted a People until and unless they change for the worse their own condition by deviating from the correct path.”    

The qur’aan has referred to this dimension (grassroots change) in numerous verses which deal with the Primary Divine Objective for the Revelation of the Qur’aan.

verily a [brilliant] light and a Book that sheds light on your problems has come to you from Allaah. Allaah will surely guide whoever follows the path He is pleased with to the ways of peace and he [the Prophet] will remove them from the many layers of darkness* towards the Brilliant Light by His permission and he (the Prophet) then guides you to the Correct Way of Living.

*(darkness upon darkness – apartheid -> racism, Bantu education, shabeens, poverty ßà prostitution ßà STD’s| STI’s, hungerßàcrime, unemployment ßàmeaninglessness)

[Important: etymology of the word kaffir / caffir  – Latin ! for beast of burden, colonialists saw the native, indigenous people as animals, donkeysto work for them, not of Arabic or Islamic origin]

See also declarations: 

In these declarations (singular – aayat —  plural – aayaat – signs to a better way of living) the qur’aan demonstrates that the great task of Grassroots Change (which the qur’aan refers to as taking people away from one pole to the other pole – darkness to light) is not just an aim to which the quraan strives but rather this great task is the Primary Divine Objective [Reason] behind  for the Revelation of the Qur’aan.   

|| 51 || Hence to guide to the Light is to bring about a fundamental change which links the human to Allaah.

“Allaah is the Light of the Skies and the EarthHe is light upon light. He guides to His light whoever wishes to be guided to His Light

The Idea of Opposites is fundamental to the qur’aan. Another pair of opposites in the qur’aan is the Allaah ßà Taaghuut [false gods(=false ideas) that stand between Allaah and humanity, that is they prevent people living according to the way shown to them by Allaah, the oppressive social system]. 

” Those who seek to establish peace [alladhiina aamanuu, the muminoon] fight in the path of Allaah and those who reject [alladhiina kafaruu, the  kaafiruun*] fight in the path of Taaghuut that is they defend and fight for the oppressive social system ”                                

* alladhiina kafaruu, the  kaafiruun – those who wish to bury society, those who wish to keep society buried in layers of darkness

The quraan informs us that the task placed on the shoulders of all the Prophets was to guide people from Darkness to light, to free them from the oppressive systems of the Taaghuut and live according to the Correct Path, the path of perseverance (Siraat al Mustaqim):

[Important: Siraat al Mustaqim does not mean easy path]  

 “We sent to all people a Messenger who said to them, Follow (worship) Allaah  (the way of Allaah) and shun and keep away from the Taaghuut

…  || 53 ||  the second objective:  

An Appropriate Method to Bring About Real Change

Obviously this Real Change (the 1st dimension) requires a method by which it can be realized. This method is called Hikma in the quraan:  

|| 54 ||

 “…the Prophet teaches them the qur’aan and the hikma.  Hikma refers to the deep understanding of the truths of nature, human nature, history, the movement and development of human history

The quraan calls this dynamic method of striving in All spheres (areas) of life asSiraatul Mustaqiim:

 “Guide us along the correct path (asSiraatul Mustaqiim) the Path of those you have blessed [by virtue of the success they have achieved by following your guidance] , not the path of those on whom your anger has descended    [by virtue of their not following the correct path] nor those who are astray.

The third objective

Creating the – the Commitment to Internal Change and Societal Change

One needs to be committed to social change in order to bring about Social Change, this commitment to self and social change is the 3rd dimension of the Primary Divine Objective. The quraan refers to this dimension of CREATING commitment as tazkiya| yuzakkiihim.

The quraan endeavours to create this Commitment to Internal Change and Societal Change. The quraan did not hesitate, waver or shy away from any problem, it boldly took stands on various issues in order to achieve its Fundamental Aim. 

[Important: as you read the quraan keep this point in mind and study how the quraan deals with the various obstacles facing human progress]

The task of Creating the Commitment to Internal Change and Societal Change and to articulate (to act out) this Commitment in society is a most difficult and complex mission, however at the same time this task of Creating the Commitment to Internal Change and Societal Change is most important to the future of the Prophet’s Mission, his Risaala, and the ability of the Mission(Risaala) to sustain itself, to continue, to achieve, to succeed, to expand, to bring in more people, to deal with new and greater challenges

In creating and sustaining Societal Change, together with the Methodological Dimension (Dimensions 1, 2 and 3) there is the Quantitative Dimension. This means that after the passing away of Nabi [S] it is imperative that from the First Group that Nabi [S] has created it would be possible for the Din of Islam to continue and spread. The quraan lays great emphasis on this Quantitative Dimension. We observe this concern over Quantity in various statements of the quraan. The Prophets task is to take Islaam to as people possible.  

|| 56 ||  The quraan gives special attention to the inhabitants of the Arabian Peninsula,

  This Book which We have Revealed is a Blessed Book, it confirms what is before you that you may warn (the people of) the Mother City and those around it[S 6 : V 92] the Prophet is to reform the people of Makkah in order to create with them a Group Committed to Social Change, which will continue the Mission. This special concern with the people of the Arabian Peninsula does not imply any superiority over other people, rather this special concern is in order to achieve the Quantitative (amount, numbers) goal.

  “He (Allaah) sent into the People of Makkah a Great Prophet from amongst themselves, he teaches them deeply the messages of Allaah [S 62 : V 2]

The quraan also emphasises the importance of continuing the Prophetic Project of Societal Betterment (Improvement) to new heights.             

|| 57 ||  Important: read these verses very carefully in light of the above statement.  

  Allaah has decreed(?) – I and my Messengers will triumph – Allaah is mighty and overpowering.[S 58 : V 21]

 “Surely We Help our Messengers AND [time factor, duration]  those who work to establish peace[ S 40 : V51] 

  We have Declared in the Zabuur that the Righteous Workers (ibaad) shall inherit the earth. 

It is important to realise that this task of continuing the Prophetic Project is not confined to any group or person, nor is it the privilege of, any group, or any person.       

  O you who strive to establish peace, whoever flees from his task (yartaddu) know that Allaah will bring forth another people[S 5 : V 53] 

It is hence a great possibility that one of the reasons why certain issues and terms are used in the quraan is the special concern for the people of Arabia. It is possible to observe this characteristic of address in the emphasis on Ibraahiim [S], in the manner of the emphasis on wahy and its treatment, in the rejection of idols. The Arabic language and the style used in the qur’aan, in the light of the fact that the first (not primary|main) addressees of the qur’aan were a highly oral people deserve special attention. The short Suraas show the need for this special attention.       

The quraan achieves the Primary Objective for its revelation.

When we study the conceptual and ideational [issues, tone] development of the qur’aan we find that the qur’aan was successful in achieving its objective of Societal Change in all three dimensions. It was successful in creating an Islaamic Umma which was an example in method and achievement and one that carried the burden of the message to the World.

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