a Contemporary, Political, Social, and Economic exploration of the implications of Sura Fatiha.
© copyright munir hassan
[1.] ALL Arabic terminology phrases, are translated into English.
[2.] Elucidations, glosses to make the text clearer have been added within square brackets [ ] text within square brackets [within] is not found in the audio CD.
[3.] text with a strikethrough strikethrough is found in the CD but should be ignored, these are errors which occurred while speaking.
Bismillaahir rahmaanir rahiim
Assalaamualaikum wa rahmatullaahi wa barakaatu
My name is munir hassan, i am Maulawi, Aalim, and Faazil. Those three titles were conferred upon me by my Ustaad, Maulana Saalih Salaahuddiin.
The CD that we are going to make now will deal with a tafsir, of Surah alhamdu Shariif, Suratul Fatiha.
It is an attempt at a Contemporary, Political, Social, and Economic exploration of the implications of Sura Fatiha.
Bismil laa hirr rahmaa nirr raheem
Dearest muslim, dearest Muslima, dearest Ab’dul’laah, dearest Ama’tull’laah,
Friends in submission to Allah, and in bringing to realization the will of Allah into our lives and into the world.
Please accept my gratitude for showing an interest in the Qur’aan, and particularly its opening, SURA’TUL FAA’TI’HA.
Your interest and companionship are most valued, especially in these trying times for the Muslim Umma and for the human family at large. Our fathers, mothers, daughters, sisters, and grandparents in the heartlands of Islam are slaughtered whilst they go about fulfilling basic human tasks: buying basic human necessities, going to school, going to the doctor, or worse still, they suffer life-impairing and maiming injuries. In this context of global bewilderment, horror, and terror, i plead that you take my hand in this dark and frightening universe, one made so by humankind, as i humbly try to seek healing and help, solace and hope in the Qur’aan, the Qur’aan which is the outpouring of the love of Allah Subhanahu wa taala which Nabi Muhammad Sal’lal’laa’hu alai’hi wa Sal’lam through great pain, hardship and sacrifice brought to all creation.
Suratul hamd, Suratul faatiha has many names. One name, the famous name is al-Faatiha, interpretively, al-Faatiha is the Opening, it is so named because through this sura Nabi Muhammad Sal lal laa hu alaihi wa sallam opens a new destiny for humanity, he leads humanity out of darkness, -zulumaat- into light, a soft merciful soothing light. Sura fatiha is also known as ummul kitaab, the summary of the aims and objectives and ambitions of the Qur’aan. It is a point of departure from which the lofty goals of Islam are expounded.
Prior to exploring Sura faatiha, a few preliminary comments are necessary.
What is iihaa, what is the “revelation” of Allah swt?
[Ii’haa: communication and direction and mandate from ALLAH to save humanity from earthly Ja’han’num and Ja’han’num in the after-life]
Iihaa is the verbal noun from Au’haa – yuu’hii, it is commonly translated as “revelation.” It [iihaa] is the giving of crucial life saving information, to a person.
The Qur’aan also describes itself as inzaal and tanziil, this refers to the bringing down of pure water to the earth. Allah says that he – Allaah – makes the inzaal or tanziil of the Qur’aan to nabi mhd. Inzaal-Tanziil is here used metaphorically, majaazan. The Qur’aan is the life giving, life saving, refreshing, rejuvenating water from Allah Sub’haa’na’hu wa ta’aa’la himself into Nabi Sal lal laa hu alaihi wa sallam.
Ii’haa can better be comprehended if we look into its [iihhaa’s] nature with reference to Nabi Muhammad Sal lal laa hu alaihi wa sallam.
In ii’haa there is
1. Raf’u Muhammadin al’Khalqa ilal Laahi:
that is Nabi Muhammad Sal lal laa hu alaihi wa sallam. elevates khalq/creation to the audience of, the realm of the Divine, the jabaruut, rahamuut. He [Nabi Muhammad Sal lal laa hu alaihi wa sallam] makes creation’s problems Divinity’s primary concern. This is the first characteristic of ii’haa: Raf’u Muhammadin al’khalqa ilal Laahi.
2. Raf unn min jaani bil laah Muhammadan:
Allah tt raises Nabi Muhammad Sal lal laa hu alaihi wa sallam to HIMSELF. For this Nabi Mhd must have certain qualities that answer RAH’MAAN’S, concern for humanity’s many crises.
3. the third characteristic of iihaa is
Ta’raf’fu’u Mu’ham’ma’din naf’sa’hu bi aq’saa ghaa’yaa’til ju’huud i’lal laa’hi:
that is, on the terrestrial level, human level, a’lal mus’ta’wal ar’dhi, a’lal mus’ta’wal ba’sha’ri we note that Nabi Muhammad (Sal lal laa hu alaihi wa sallam) exerts himself to the highest extant and purifies himself in mind, body, spirit and soul to make himself worthy of the outpouring of Allah Sub’haa’na’hu wa Ta’aa’las mercy [Rahma].
We note that Nabi Muhammad (Sal lal laa hu alaihi wa sallam) who receives ii’haa is that Nabi Muhammad (Sal lal laa hu alaihi wa sallam) who experienced the hardships of orphan-hood: a’lam ya’jid’ka ya’tee’man fa aa’waa. He experienced (1)Hunger, (2)Thirst, (3)Poverty, (4)Persecution, (5)Economic boycott and much more. i Say that there is in Nabi Muhammad (Sal lal laa hu alaihi wa sallam) da’waam, day’muu’ma, an ever presence, a constant perpetual awareness, a constant and most intense experience of these pains [(1) Hunger (2) Thirst (3) Poverty (4) Persecution (5) Economic] and these enhance the credibility – so to speak – of the Nubuwwa of Nabi Muhammad (Sal lal laa hu alaihi wa sallam) and the solutions of Nabi Muhammad (Sal lal laa hu alaihi wa sallam) for humanity and they show, to the great comfort of humankind, the deep concern and love of Allah for all creation.
i Now deal with an important tafsiiri technique [tafsiiri: methodology of, approach to interpreting the Qur’aan], an exegetical device, a hermeneutic method developed, applied, and written about extensively by Ustad Ra’dhi’yall’laa’hu Ta’aala an’hu Maulana Saa’lih Sa’laa’hud’diin.
i will give the Arabic of this technique for Arabic knowing listeners. The technique is named and described by Ustad Ra’dhi’yall’laa’hu Ta’aala an’hu as
is’tin’taa’qul qur’aa’ni is’tin’taa’qan dhid’diy’yan,
is’tiq’raa’ul Qur’aa’ni is’tiq’raa’an dhid’diy’yin,
is’ti’maa’un i’laa as’waat mu’ta aa’ri’dha mu’aa’ri’dha fii da’khi’lil Qur’aan, and also in other writings Ustad Ra’dhi’yall’laa’hu Ta’aala an’hu uses the words:
in’taa’qul Qur’aan in’taa’qan dhid’diy’yan.
To translate is’tin’taa’qul qur’aa’ni is’tin’taa’qan dhid’diy’yan it means to make the Qur’aan speak and to uncover from the surface hidden voices or implied speech that is obtained in [from] the context of the revelation of the Qur’aan. This summary of is’tin’taa’qul qur’aa’ni is’tin’taa’qan dhid’diy’yan is one that will explain the other Arabic texts [that is: terms] Ustad Ra’dhi’yall’laa’hu Ta’aala an’hu. To elaborate further, by the above, i mean that within the Qur’aan there are present contrary, oppositional, and adversarial voices and for a fuller, richer, comprehensive, nuanced and contextual understanding of the Qur’aan, hearing these voices that lay below the surface of the Qur’aan is necessary.
The Qur’aan must be heard and read slowly, carefully, closely.
Every sense and faculty of the reader must be trained and applied to comprehending the Qur’aan. This is a slow, demanding, meticulous labor.
In my tafsir of al’Ham’du Sha’riif, of Su’ra’tul Faa’ti’ha, i will apply this method of is’tin’taa’qul qur’aa’ni is’tin’taa’qan dhid’diy’yan – Hearing, soliciting the adversarial voices that are embedded within the text of the Qur’aan, beneath the immediate surface.
It is important for us to understand that Nabi Muhammad (Sal lal laa hu alaihi wa sallam) has many addressees.
Imagine Nabi Muhammad (Sal lal laa hu alaihi wa sallam) in Makka, Madiina, Arabia and in the greater Semitic milieu, the Semitic aa’lam [al’Ham’du lil Laa’hi Rab’bil Aa’la’miin] which interacts with other neighboring aa’lams, ([plural:] aalamuun/ aalamiin) [singular: aalam].
Nabi Muhammad (Sal lal laa hu alaihi wa sallam) acts in and is perceptive of the schemes and agendas of diverse and sundry power blocks: Byzantine [Byzantium], Persia, Daa’run Nad’wa, the Makkan oligarchy. Nabi Muhammad (Sal lal laa hu alaihi wa sallam) is deep in the world of politics with all the intrigue that it [politics] entails. With every proclamation of the Qur’aan he, Nabi Muhammad (Sal lal laa hu alaihi wa sallam), addresses their, the various power-blocks’; he addresses their spies, their scouts, their intelligence, their touts, their agent-provocateurs, their henchmen, their priests and assassins, they are all around him. [[Personal of Rome/Byzantium, Persia, Yemen, Egypt, the large powerful tribes of the Arabian peninsula, double and triple agents.]] As the Islamic mission progresses more flock to Makka and Madiina to bring to abortion [by any means necessary] the effort and Ri’saa’la of Nabi Muhammad (Sal lal laa hu alaihi wa sallam) [Global, Universal, trans-Ethnic, anti-Racist order based on mercy that Nabi Muhammad (Sal lal laa hu alaihi wa sallam) is forging].
The Ri’saa’la of Nabi Muhammad (Sal lal laa hu alaihi wa sallam) takes place at a very crucial and sensitive period in [Arabian and] greater Middle Eastern History. This was a time when the great powers were forging spheres of influence: the assault on Makka by the As’haabul fiil, the meeting between Abu Sufyaan and the Makkan oligarchy- hegemony with the Emperor of the Byzantine-Roman Empire, Hercules, are clear indications of the major political, military… efforts at forging a new world order according to the imperial plans of the various power blocks. Abu Sufyaan and company do not get an audience with the Roman Emperor for mere idle talk. They discuss serious global and imperial projects. Hence the time of Nabi Muhammad (Sal lal laa hu alaihi wa sallam) was a time of intense political activity.
It is important to understand this context.
To understand the Qur’aan let us picture Nabi Muhammad (Sal lal laa hu alaihi wa sallam), let us creatively and compassionately imagine him.
Nabi Muhammad (Sal lal laa hu alaihi wa sallam) goes out; careful, cautious, courageous, to do the qi’raa’ah, iq’raa and A’zaan [of the Qur’aan], to proclaim the Qur’aan. From his spirit and body the pure heavenly life – giving rain gushes out to a parched humanity.
Prior to letting these Divine waters gush forth, He, Nabi Muhammad (Sal lal laa hu alaihi wa sallam) has to:
[1.] “ascend” to Allah, i’lal’Laah: ass-sayr-ilal-laah.
[2.] He, Nabi S has to “ascend” and “enter into” Allah: ass-sayr-fill-laah
[3.] and from within the depths of Allah “drink” this tanziil, internalize it, digest it, imbibe it.
My debt here to Mulla Sadra, his Asfaar Arb-ah is patent and i gladly acknowledge it.
Nabi Muhammad S must descend then into himself, enter into himself, he has to traverse himself extensively and intensively, traverse those nearly infinite a-waa-lim, universes, within him. Knowledge of Allah ta’aalah is impossible without a thorough knowledge of the self, mann a-ra-fa naf=sa-hu a-ra-fa rabb-ba-hu.
Nabi Muhammad (Sal lal laa hu alaihi wa sallam) also has to enter into khalq, into the past of humankind, the present of humankind, the diversity of humankind.
Allah is Rabb-bul-Aa-la-miin, the RABB of ALL PEOPLES [aa-laa-miin]. [the Rasuul (Sal lal laa hu alaihi wa sallam) is hence the rasuul of ALL peoples. It is the mission of every Nabi, every Rasuul, to create peace goodwill between peoples, tribes, nations…]
The Rasuul (Sal lal laa hu alaihi wa sallam) internalizes, feels, contains, and comprehends, humanity’s many pains and sufferings.
What is Ii-haa, In-zaal, Tan-ziil?
It is the receiving of guidance [Hidaayah] after exhaustive “dha’laa’lah”, my reference here is to Suuraa Wadh-dhu-haa, the intense, relentless, steadfast search for truth, for solutions to society’s crises, a search which takes the searcher, the dhaal, to the edge of life, and to the precipice of death.
The Qur’aan is Oxygen to the breathless, water to the one on the verge of death, warmth to one who is to die of cold, it is the coolness for one engulfed in the inferno of struggle against zulm, oppression. The struggle for mercy, kindness, love, compassion, grace, forgiveness is sweet yet demanding, my references here include:
1 wa wajadaka dhallan fahadaa
2 la’allaka bakhi’un nafsaka
both (1) and (2) are madh/praise and tadhiim/elevation of Nabi Muhammad (Sal lal laa hu alaihi wa sallam) from ALLAH Sub’haa’na’hu wa ta’aa’la.
A fundamental principle in my Taf’siir is that the Qur’aan is intensely political in the most comprehensive [sense of the] term; the tafsiiri terminology Asbaabun Nuzuul, Bawaai’thun Nuzuul = prompting factors of ALLAH, arRAHMAAN, arRAHIIM’s responses through Nabi (S) are indeed its [the Qur’aan’s] politics [that is: demonstrate the political nature of the Qur’aan]. The Qur’aan is politics par excellance, i cannot over emphasize this important principle for me viz a viz the Qur’aan. The Qur’aan is intensely political. Any reading of Asbaabun Nuzuul will demonstrate the intense political nature of the Qur’aan.
Suratul Faatiha is the effort to open, to forge a new destiny for the MUS’TADH’A’FUUN – a key term in the Qur’aan – the oppressed. The FAATIHA effort is not blindly exclusive of the abusers of power. It [Suratul Faatiha and the Qur’aan] asks them to look carefully at themselves and see the effect of their policies and become active creators of a RAH’MAA’NIYYA–RAHII’MIYYA modus vivandi, way of life.
Let us now enter SUURA FAATIHA
Aayaa NUMBER ONE 1
Bis mil laa hir rah maa nirr ra hiim
Bis mil laa hir rah maa nirr ra hiim is the first Aayaa of Suura tul Hamd, Suuratul Faatiha AND an independent unit.
It [Bis mil laa hir rah maa nirr ra hiim] is the central principle of the Qur’aan,
It is the seed from which the vast oak of the Qur’aan grows,
Bis mil laa hir rah maa nirr ra hiim is the DNA of all that is good,
Bis mil laa hir rah maa nirr ra hiim is the Big Bang of Beauty/Jamaal, Hubb[motiveless Love], Ih’saan[doing of good], Af’wu, Magh’fi’rah/forgiveness – all in a mutual sense.
The Bis mil laa hir rah maa nirr ra hiim is so majestic that we can forever explore, forever draw sustenance for mind body spirit and soul from it. It is ever fresh, ever new.
In translation, Bis mil laa hir rah maa nirr ra hiim:
In the name of ALLAH, the Beneficent, the Merciful,
In the name of ALLAH, RAH’MAAN, RAHIIM.
It is also grammatically correct to read:
Bis mil laa hir rah maa nUrr ra hiimU
Meaning: In the name of ALLAH who is RAH’MAAN, who is RAHIIM.
Scholars of Arabic generally take the implied verb, the fi’l mahzuuf, to be “ab* ta* di* u” before Bis mil laa hir rah maa nirr ra hiim hence yielding be “ab* ta* di* u” Bis mil laa hir rah maa nirr ra him, [translation:] i begin with name of ALLAH, ar-RAH’MAAN, the ar-RAHIIM.
In my opinion, Maulana munir Hassan, this is too great a delimitation of the nature of the Qur’aan and of Suuratul Faatiha.
It is my opinion [that] in light of the intensely Political nature of the Entire Qur’aan and Suura Faatiha in particular that the implied verb would be better read as
“AS* TA* II* NU” and “AS* TAN* SI* RU” [meaning:] “i seek the help of ALLAH…” or
“AS* TA* II* DHU” [meaning:] “i seek the protection of ALLAH.”
My humble opinion is that:
“AS* TA* II* NU” [or]
“AS* TAN* SI* RU” or
“AS* TA* II* DHU”
are more appropriate to the nature of the Qur’aan, which is the demand of constant struggle for the betterment of humanity and struggle against oppression.
[[ “AS* TA* II* NU” [or] “AS* TAN* SI* RU” [meaning:] “i seek the help of ALLAH…” or “AS* TA* II* NU” [meaning:] “i seek the protection of ALLAH.” ]]
the meaning yielded would be: I, Nabi Muhammad (Sal lal laa hu alaihi wa sallam), seek the help of ALLAH; I, Nabi Muhammad (Sal lal laa hu alaihi wa sallam) seek the protection of ALLAH, in this extremely dangerous and perilous undertaking.
Proclaiming the Qur’aan and striving to implement and bring to realization the demands of the Qur’aan’s ideals is always an extremely dangerous task. It unleashes chain reactions of hostility, it causes men and women to unsheathe swords, plot assassinations. The proclamation of the Qur’aan unites against its proclaimer, against its Qaa’ri, against its muezzin diverse, cryptic, complex international forces. This was the Siirah of Nabi Muhammad (S). With the invocation of ALLAH and his description as RAH’MAAN and RA’HIIM Nabi (S) – the orphan son of AAMINA and ABDULLAH (A’LAI’HI’MASS SA’LAAM) – rejects the authoritative bases and metaphysical sources legitimating any and all Zulm or oppression since Nabi Muhammad (Sal lal laa hu alaihi wa sallam)’s ALLAH is RAHMAAN, RAHIIM in diverse ways.
RAHMAAN and RAHIIM are the defining characteristics of ALLAH and the implication on the existential plain – which is RAHMAANIYYAH and RAHIIMIYYAH – is the defining characteristic of Islam and Iimaan.
RAHMAANIYYAH – RAHIIMIYYAH are the winds which guide the ship of Risaala/Messengership. Though BISMILLAAH, RAHMAAN and RAHIIM permeate the entire Qur’aan. By concluding [ending] verses, by initiating [starting] verses and by centrally pegging verses which deal with various and sundry topics Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’aala makes RAHMAAN, RAHIIM and the resulting Farz of creating an order permeated with RAHMANIYYA and RAHIIMIYYA – the guiding stars of any Islamic – Imaanic effort.
AAYAH NUMBER TWO/2
AL’Hamdu’lillaa’hi Rabbil Aalamiin
This Aayah may be translated as:
All praise is due to ALLAH, the RABB – the Lord, Sustainer, Nourisher, Maintaner, of ALL PEOPLES.
In my opinion AALAMIIN refers firstly to the divers communities whose differences are used by evil forces to forment [ferment] conflict.
Now with this al’Hamdu’lillaa’h, with this Praising of ALLAH Ta’aalah, what can we learn?
To praise a being, an entity, is to like, to love that particular being, thing or entity.
Nabi Muhammad (sal’lal laa’hu alai’hi’wa sallam) finds ALLAH praiseworthy and simultaneously ALLAH announces Himself as Praiseworthy because of the qualities that emanate from ALLAH and the wholesome, healthful, normative implications of the Qualities of Allah.
Now, to use the Tafsiiri Technique of al’Qi’raa’atudh Diddiyyah [reading closely, questioningly, interrogatively eliciting / extracting the opposite implications of the text] developed by Ustaad Maulana Saalih Salaahuddin ra’dhi yal laa’hu ta’aa’la an’hu which foregrounds “contrary” voices within the Qur’aan, below the surface of the text, we “hear” that prior to and opposition to this Hamd of Nabi Muhammad (Sal lal laa hu alaihi wa sallam) the oligarchy and several groupings in the elite, the mut’ri’fuun (the abusers of wealth which is the Rizq of ALLAH Ta’aalaa) the Sa’ha’ra [spin-doctors, ideologues, commissars] and shu’a’raa [spokespersons, image – creators, image – beautifiers], the legitimators of the ideology that yields Zulm/oppression are praising all that is other than ALLAH. They praise [make Hamd of …] Rome, Persia, they Praise Egypt; and lower level Sa’ha’ra and Shu’a’ra praise aspirant despots. Hence, by praising [ALLAH] Nabi [Muhammad Sal’lal’laa’hu alai’hi wa’sal’lam] enters into conflict with them [the Sa’ha’ra and Shu’a’ra]. HAMD here is clearly political and conflictual. Nabi Muhammad Sal’lal’laa’hu alai’hi wa’sal’lam does not find Rome, Persia, Egypt – the Imperial powers of the time – and other warlords, aspirant tyrants praiseworthy. In fact as the Qur’aan unfolds [Nabi] Muhammad [Sal’lal’laa’hu alai’hi wa’sal’lam] elaborates their blameworthiness. They do NOT foster the comprehensive and healthful well-being of humanity.
The political, social, economic […] orders that they create imprison people into prostitution through poverty, [imprison] people in alcoholism, riba-slavery, usury-slavery and more. They terrorize the individual and social psyche. They are the enemies, [and] the anti-thesis of Rah’ma’niyya – Ra’hii’miyya. Only Nabi and his fellow Nabis [plural] throughout the world pursue politics on the principal of Rah’ma’niyya – Ra’hii’miyya.
To answer the challenge of the political legitimacy of Nabi [Muhammad Sal’lal’laa’hu alai’hi wa’sal’lam] we need to explain why the praise [HAMD] of ALLAH – this absolute other – issues forth from NABI [Muhammad Sal’lal’laa’hu alai’hi wa’sal’lam]?
It issues forth from NABI [Muhammad Sal’lal’laa’hu alai’hi wa’sal’lam] because of his absolute YAQIIN in the total UN-worthiness of all anti-Allahs for any praise whatsoever, that is, NABI [Muhammad Sal’lal’laa’hu alai’hi wa’sal’lam] is at the highest stage of knowledge, at the stage of Haq’qul Yaqiin, Il’mul Yaqiin, that all other than Allah and particularly the anti-Allah are totally unworthy of praise [HAMD]. And who are the anti-Allahs? The anti-Allahs are those who wage war against ALLAH by waging war against the weak in ALLAH’s creation. They cowardly persecute the weak in ALLAH’s creation: they bomb women, children, aged, and the pregnant women. They, through the discourse of deception, the verbal and image terrorism of advertising and PR and spin induct people and highly impressionable youngsters, adolescents, into drinking alchohol, drug abuse, gambling, life destroying social conduct […]. South Africa for example is in the thick of an HIV-AIDS pandemic; storms, tornadoes, hurricanes that are wrecking the lives of innocent children.
Also in support of the political legitimacy of NABI [Muhammad Sal’lal’laa’hu alai’hi wa’sal’lam] is the fact that he received Ii’haa
[communication and direction and mandate from ALLAH to save humanity from earthly Ja’han’num and Ja’han’num in the after-life]
at the [mature] age of forty/40. That is, at first and initial Ii’haa NABI [Muhammad Sal’lal’laa’hu alai’hi wa’sal’lam] has a forty/40 year history of intense struggle for the welfare of all and sundry.
Forty/40 years in political, social, cultural, intellectual and other battlefields.
Forty/40 years of intense soul-searching, ethico-moral contemplation, debate, dialogue, study, scrutiny and protest. This cannot be overemphasized.
NABI [Muhammad Sal’lal’laa’hu alai’hi wa’sal’lam]’s ALLAH is RAB’BUL AA’LA’MIIN: the Sustainer, Provider, Friend, Lover of ALL humanity without discrimination on any grounds whatsoever. ALLAH is the RABB of all Arab tribes, not just of those who of recent – that is, in NABI’s lifetime – had become wealthy. Was not NABI [Muhammad Sal’lal’laa’hu alai’hi wa’sal’lam] passed over by many a wet-nurse.
The description of ALLAH, the Absolute, as RAB’BUL AA’LA’MIIN asks that [demands that] the deliberate manufacture of hunger through Riba, fear, discriminatory and essentially false currency disparities be dismantled. Hunger [and] malnutrition manufacturing is the way of the anti-Allah. It is the way the anti-Allah wages war against ALLAH, through the weak in the creation of ALLAH Ta’aa’la.
The construction RAB’BUL AA’LA’MIIN asks that the food rights of the poorED, the hungryED be secured. The month of Ramadhaan is a catalyst for this global Islamic Risaalah or agenda.
With the words “RAB’BUL AA’LA’MIIN”, NABI [Muhammad Sal’lal’laa’hu alai’hi wa’sal’lam] – himself no stranger to hunger – enfranchises the disenfranchised. All must eat, citizen or non-citizen, fellow tribesman or a fellow human being from another tribe, the musaafir, ibnus sabiil – the itinerant migrant laborers, orphans and widows. The welfare of these and other vulnerable groups is the special concern of the Muhammadi-Ra’hii’miyy consciousness.
The Qur’aan is grave in warning that women may not be enticed, coerced, duped into prostitution at all. This is the Islamic-Iimaanic-Muhammadiyy imperative.
It is the duty and task of Nubuwwa and Risaala [exercised] through the qualities of Naziir-Bashiir, that is, constant vigilance, to strategize the treatment of these and other problems which are existential states of unjust earthly Ja’han’nums.
“RAB’BUL AA’LA’MIIN” is intensely green as a construction, verdant in connotation. Its vortex, its nexus in creation is nature: the water cycle, the sprouting of plants, pollination, fruit, cereal, vegetables, milk in the udder of mother cows…
Nature is the Holy of Holies, the Mazhar, sphere of manifestation – in the language of kalaam[theology], of lahoot [theology] – where humankind touch or come in close proximity of divinity. The Qur’aan cautions us: Walk never arrogantly on the earth, Laa tam’shii fil ar’dhi ma’ra’ha. Humankind, by its engagement with nature and in its manner of distributing the sustenance of Allah – in Political Science terminology: distributive justice – show themselves as either Kaafir, Kafuur, ungrateful or thankful and appreciative, Shaakir.
Aayah Number Three/3
It is also correct to read (which i prefer):
This core identity of ALLAH, this Haqiiqat of ALLAH is for-grounded and emphasized as an independent Aayah.
Rah’maa’n – Ra’hiim must be the lens through which we study the Qur’aan.
ALLAH is saying that the problems, conflicts, crises which batter the fragile ship of humanity can be weathered if humanity makes mercy, compassion, kindness, pity, leniency, clemency, grace, forgiveness, warmth, its guiding principles.
RAHMAAN refers to mercy in full vibrancy.
RAHIIM refers to mercy at the subtle level; for example, the roots of plants drawing water from the ground which will later provide sustenance for animals and for humankind.
All our well-being can be secured through the qualities of RAH’MAA’NIYYAH [and] RA’HII’MIY’YAH.
Islam-Iimaan is based on the two qualities [of] RAH’MAA’NIYYAH [and] RA’HII’MIY’YAH. They define Allah and the way of life, the Shari’ah, that ALLAH calls to. RAH’MAA’NIYYAH [and] RA’HII’MIY’YAH must permeate the economic, political, legal order that muslims create. Muslims must make every effort, every sacrifice to seek out articulations of RAH’MAA’NIYYAH throughout the world, in all religions, amongst all peoples and embrace these articulations with deep gratitude. We need to review, make deep muhaasaba of ourselves, our habits, our law, our institutions… using RAH’MAA’NIYYAH – RA’HII’MIY’YAH as the Furqaan, the scale, the balance. To engage classical kalaam, RAH’MAA’NIYYAH [and] RA’HII’MIY’YAH are the absolutely necessary qualities of ALLAH, sifaat laazima, all other qualities are born from and informed by these qualities and must be interpreted through them, especially the Jalaaliy [qualities showing the augustness of ALLAH] qualities.
Aayah Number Four/4
Maa’li’ki Yau’midd’ diin / Maa’li’ku Yau’midd’ diin
The Master of the Day of Reckoning [Judgment]
Maa’lik is the absolute sovereign, the absolute judge who owns judgment rightfully.
Maa’lik is he who is able to judge; many a times a person sits as a judge but is not really able to judge:
*she[/he] may have racial prejudices,
*she[/he] may have fear or awe of the rich,
*she[/he] may have a hidden agenda to pursue a bribe…
ALLAH does not have any of these defects hence he is able to judge and is the rightful judge.
With Maa’li’ki Yau’midd’ diin Nabi [Muhammad Sal’lal’laa’hu alai’hi wa’sal’lam] announces – upon close reading – the futility of all Zulm and its ultimate failure [futility]. Within the Na’ba’wi – Ra’suu’li foresight of the ultimate futility of all oppression NABI [Muhammad Sal’lal’laa’hu alai’hi wa’sal’lam] calls his audience in the next verse to unite and chart a new destiny.
Aayah Number Five/5
Iyy’yaa’ka Na’bu’du wa Iyy’yaa’ka Nas’ta’iin
[YOU alone do we worship [i’baa’da] and from YOU alone do we desire help/and from YOU alone do we hope for help.
We do only YOUR bidding [i’baa’da] and so from YOU alone do we desire help/and from YOU alone do we hope for help.]
This Aaya demonstrates the international political character of NABI [Muhammad Sal’lal’laa’hu alai’hi wa’sal’lam]. In charting a new path, in challenging and confronting the systems of Zulm, NABI [Muhammad Sal’lal’laa’hu alai’hi wa’sal’lam] is of course asked:
* With whom are you going to ally yourself?
* Who are going to be your supporters?
You [Muhammad] are not a powerful man.
You [Muhammad] are not Aziiz [influential, powerful], you [Muhammad] are not Aziim[powerful].
Whose agenda are you going to promote?
NABI [Muhammad Sal’lal’laa’hu alai’hi wa’sal’lam]’s response which is articulated in this Aaya – Iyy’yaa’ka Na’bu’du wa Iyy’yaa’ka Nas’ta’iin – YOUR bidding only we do (referring to ALLAH) and YOU alone we ask for ultimate and primary help.
NABI [Muhammad Sal’lal’laa’hu alai’hi wa’sal’lam]’s response is that he charts a new path.
His discontent [with oppression/zulm] which has been developing since childhood [hil’ful fu’dhuul] is not a hollow discontent.
In using the plural[s] 1. Na’bu’du Nas’ta’iin 2. Nas’ta’iin, first person plural [“We”], NABI [Muhammad Sal’lal’laa’hu alai’hi wa’sal’lam], now about to embark on an august global political mission, appeals to his audience to join him.
[with the Aaya: Iyy’yaa’ka Na’bu’du wa Iyy’yaa’ka Nas’ta’iin]
NABI Muhammad Sal’lal’laa’hu alai’hi wa’sal’lam demonstrates to his adversaries that he is serious in confronting them. He is willing to marshal forces and engage them. This appeal also tests and sifts his audience:
Are they serious about making change?
Are they willing to sacrifice for the course of change?
Then they must of necessity join together. They must form an Ummah, a compassionate community aspiring to lofty purposes.
Aayah Number Six/6
Ih’di’nas Si’raa’tal Mus’ta’qiim
NABI [Muhammad] Sal’lal’laa’hu alai’hi wa’sal’lam having carefully – over a forty year period – interrogated the agendas of Persia, Egypt, Rome, Daa’runn Nad’wa knows well that these are not in the interests and welfare of humanity at large.
Allah shows NABI [Muhammad Sal’lal’laa’hu alai’hi wa’sal’lam] another way, this other way is the Si’raat Mus’ta’qiim: the way of integrity, honesty, morality, forgiveness; all very demanding ideals in this world. It is highly erroneous and misleading to translate Si’raat Mus’ta’qiim as the straight path, it gives a sense of easiness.
Aayah Number Seven/7
Si’raa’tal la’dhii’na an’am’ta a’lai’him
The path of those whom you have blessed
With this NABI [Muhammad Sal’lal’laa’hu alai’hi wa’sal’lam] opens history globally, he declares that the effort to extricate the mus’tadh’a’fuun from the clutches of anti-ALLAH: from the clutches of gambling, riba, usury, alcohol and so forth is one that cannot be new and when one looks into the past one will find companionship with many; with Eesaa, with Moosaa, with Haaroon, with Ilyaas and others.
This Aaya opens the Historical Sense for the reader of the Qur’aan and it encourages the deep and thorough study of history in [by] the sincere reader of the Qur’aan, Si’raa’tal la’dhii’na an’am’ta a’lai’him
[In] the last and concluding clauses of this Sura
ghai’ril magh’dhuu’bi a’lai’him wa ladh dhaal’liin
Ghai’ril magh’dhuu’bi a’lai’him: NABI [Muhammad Sal’lal’laa’hu alai’hi wa’sal’lam] shuns the path of those against whom people are angry, al’magh’dhuu’b a’lai’him, meaning that the anger of the people is directed towards [against] them. This anger of the people results in the anger of Allah. In Aqeeda and Kalaam i hold it untenable that ALLAH’s anger can be an anger ab-initio/bi’daa’ya’tan, because Allah is – with repeated emphasis in the Qur’aan – ar’RAH’MAAN and ar’RA’HIIM. The social, political and economic systems which these people implement germinate anger in the hearts of the populace, (the) an’Naas, and this anger which germinates in the heart of the populace is what triggers the anger of ar’RAH’MAAN and ar’RA’HEEM.
And the last catergory, wa ladh’ dhaal’liin, those who even though they see the harm of their policies, the harm that their policies wreck on humanity – alcoholism, destitution of families through gambling, destruction of communities because of economic mismanagement – they are still un-heading of the cries of the oppressed.
They are deaf even though they hear the cries of young girls who are raped as war booty. These are people of hard hearts, these are cruel men. They come right at the end of the Sura, in a sense symbolic that they are the lowest of humanity. With this the Sura concludes and it [the Qur’aan] ascends into Sura Baqara, which elucidates the bringing into realization the Rahmaaniyyah – Rahiimiyyah order in terms of historical struggles in the past; the story of Moosaa (alai’hiss Salaam) and also legislative vectors in the life of Nabi and the first community.